The genus Emericellopsis is found in terrestrial, but mainly in marine, environments with a worldwide distribution. Although Emericellopsis has been recognized as an important source of bioactive compounds, the range of metabolites expressed by the species of this genus, as well as the genes involved in their production are still poorly known. Untargeted metabolomics, using UPLC- QToF–MS/MS, and genome sequencing (Illumina HiSeq) was performed to unlock E. cladophorae MUM 19.33 chemical diversity. The genome of E. cladophorae is 26.9 Mb and encodes 8572 genes. A large set of genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes), secreted proteins, transporters, and secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters were identified. Our analysis also revealed genomic signatures that may reflect a certain fungal adaptability to the marine environment, such as genes encoding for (1) the high-osmolarity glycerol pathway; (2) osmolytes’ biosynthetic processes; (3) ion transport systems, and (4) CAZymes classes allowing the utilization of marine polysaccharides. The fungal crude extract library constructed revealed a promising source of antifungal (e.g., 9,12,13-Trihydroxyoctadec-10-enoic acid, hymeglusin), antibacterial (e.g., NovobiocinA), anticancer (e.g., daunomycinone, isoreserpin, flavopiridol), and anti-inflammatory (e.g., 2’-O-Galloylhyperin) metabolites. We also detected unknown compounds with no structural match in the databases used. The metabolites’ profiles of E. cladophorae MUM 19.33 fermentations were salt dependent. The results of this study contribute to unravel aspects of the biology and ecology of this marine fungus. The genome and metabolome data are relevant for future biotechnological exploitation of the species.
Hibiscus hamabo is a semi-mangrove species with strong tolerance to salt and waterlogging stress. However, the molecular basis and mechanisms that underlie this strong adaptability to harsh environments remain poorly understood. Here, we assembled a high-quality, chromosome-level genome of this semi-mangrove plant and analyzed its transcriptome under different stress treatments to reveal regulatory responses and mechanisms. Our analyses suggested that H. hamabo has undergone two recent successive polyploidy events, a whole-genome duplication followed by a whole-genome triplication, resulting in an unusually large gene number (107,309 genes). Comparison of the H. hamabo genome with that of its close relative Hibiscus cannabinus, which has not experienced a recent WGT, indicated that genes associated with high stress resistance have been preferentially preserved in the H. hamabo genome, suggesting an underlying association between polyploidy and stronger stress resistance. Transcriptomic data indicated that genes in the roots and leaves responded differently to stress. In roots, genes that regulate ion channels involved in biosynthetic and metabolic processes responded quickly to adjust the ion concentration and provide metabolic products to protect root cells, whereas no such rapid response was observed from genes in leaves. Using co-expression networks, potential stress resistance genes were identified for use in future functional investigations. The genome sequence, along with several transcriptome datasets, provide insights into genome evolution and the mechanism of salt and waterlogging tolerance in H. hamabo, suggesting the importance of polyploidization for environmental adaptation.
Cycads represent one of the most ancient lineages of living seed plants. Identifying genomic features uniquely shared by cycads and other extant seed plants, but not non-seed-producing plants, may shed light on the origin of key innovations, as well as the early diversification of seed plants. Here, we report the 10.5-Gb reference genome of
To improve our understanding of the origin and evolution of mycoheterotrophic plants, we here present the chromosome-scale genome assemblies of two sibling orchid species: partially mycoheterotrophic
All extant core-eudicot plants share a common ancestral genome that has experienced cyclic polyploidizations and (re)diploidizations. Reshuffling of the ancestral core-eudicot genome generates abundant genomic diversity, but the role of this diversity in shaping the hierarchical genome architecture, such as chromatin topology and gene expression, remains poorly understood. Here, we assemble chromosome-level genomes of one diploid and three tetraploid
Magnoliids are the third-largest group of angiosperms and occupy a critical position in angiosperm evolution. In the past years, due to the lack of sequenced genomes, the disease resistance gene (
Aspergillus section Circumdati encompasses several species that express both beneficial (e.g., biochemical transformation of steroids and alkaloids, enzymes and metabolites) and harmful compounds (e.g., production of ochratoxin A (OTA)). Given their relevance, it is important to analyze the genetic and metabolic diversity of the species of this section. We sequenced the genome of Aspergillus affinis CMG 70, isolated from sea water, and compared it with the genomes of species from section Circumdati, including A. affinis’s strain type. The A. affinis genome was characterized considering secondary metabolites biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs), carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes), and transporters. To uncover the biosynthetic potential of A. affinis CMG 70, an untargeted metabolomics (LC-MS/MS) approach was used. Cultivating the fungus in the presence and absence of sea salt showed that A. affinis CMG 70 metabolite profiles are salt dependent. Analyses of the methanolic crude extract revealed the presence of both unknown and well-known Aspergillus compounds, such as ochratoxin A, anti-viral (e.g., 3,5-Di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid and epigallocatechin), anti-bacterial (e.g., 3-Hydroxybenzyl alcohol, l-pyroglutamic acid, lecanoric acid), antifungal (e.g., lpyroglutamic acid, 9,12,13-Trihydroxyoctadec-10-enoic acid, hydroxyferulic acid), and chemotherapeutic (e.g., daunomycinone, mitoxantrone) related metabolites. Comparative analysis of 17 genomes from 16 Aspergillus species revealed abundant CAZymes (568 per species), secondary metabolite BGCs (73 per species), and transporters (1359 per species). Some BGCs are highly conserved in this section (e.g., pyranonigrin E and UNII-YC2Q1O94PT (ACR toxin I)), while others are incomplete or completely lost among species (e.g., bikaverin and chaetoglobosins were found exclusively in series Sclerotiorum, while asperlactone seemed completely lost). The results of this study, including genome analysis and metabolome characterization, emphasize the molecular diversity of A. affinis CMG 70, as well as of other species in the section Circumdati.